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Tribe Batak of North Sumatra, Indonesia.

Thursday, April 26, 2012


Faithful Readers Hy nakarasido Hita. See you again
this time I will post about their likes Batak in Sumatra. 

if you are traveling to areas north of the northern Sumatara in Indonesia you will find that the Batak tribe name. 
ok so more clearly let us discuss it together 
so if you go to North Sumatra to see the incredible scenery you will be more familiar with the tribe and greetings to them. thx
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Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The term is used to include the Toba, Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, Angkola and Mandailing, each of which are distinct but related groups with distinct, albeit related, languages and customs (adat). Occasionally it is also used to include the Alas people of Central/Southern Aceh, but usually only as relates to language groups.

In North Sumatra, Toba people typically assert their identity as 'Batak', while other 'Bataks' may explicitly reject that label, preferring instead to identify as specifically 'Simalungun', 'Karo', etc



Prehistory
Linguistic and archeological evidence indicates that Austronesian speakers first reached Sumatra from Taiwan and the Philippines through Borneo and/or Java about 2,500 years ago, and the Batak probably evolved from these settlers.[3] While the archaeology of southern Sumatra testifies the existence of neolithic settlers it seems that the northern part of Sumatra was settled by agriculturalists at a considerably later stage.

A Karo Batak woman in traditional clothes

Although the Batak are often considered to be isolated peoples, largely because they were inland, away by seafaring European colonials, there is evidence that they have been involved with trade and contact with other neighbouring kingdoms for a millennium or more. The 'Bata' were possibly documented in Zhao Rugua's 'Description of the Barbarous People', which refers to a 'Ba-ta' dependency of Srivijaya. The Suma Oriental, of the 15th century, refers to the kingdom of Bata, bounded by Pasai and Aru.[2] Due to the absence of Europeans in the region century prior to the 19th century, reliable historical records of the Batak before 1800 are almost non-existent.

The Bataks were likely involved with trade with Srivijaya for benzoin and camphor, both of which were important commodities for trade with China, and grew in the Batak lands of Northwest Sumatra, perhaps from the eighth or ninth centuries,[2] and continuing for the next thousand years, Batak men carrying the products on their backs for sale at ports.

It is suggested that the important port of Barus, in Tapanuli was populated primarily by Batak people. A Tamil inscription has been found in Barus dated 1088, while contact with Chinese and Tamil traders took place at Kota Cina, established in the eleventh century, and comprising 10,000 people by the twelfth century. Tamil remains have been found on key trade routes to the Batak lands.

These trading opportunities may have caused migration of Batak from Pakpak and Toba to the current day Karo and Simalungun 'frontier' lands, where they were exposed to greater influence from visiting Tamil traders, while the migration of Batak to the Angkola-Mandailing lands may have been prompted by eight-century Srivijayan demand for camphor.

The Karo marga 'Sembiring', meaning 'black one' is believed to originate from their ties with Tamil traders, with specific Sembiring sub-marga, namely Brahmana, Colia, Pandia, Depari, Meliala, Muham, Pelawi, and Tekan all of Indian origin. Tamil influence on Karo religious practices are also noted, with the pekualuh secondary cremation ritual specific to the Karo and Dairi people.

From the sixteenth century onwards, Aceh increased the production of pepper, an important export commodity, and in doing so needed to import rice, which grew well on the Batak wetlands. Batak people in different areas cultivated either 'sawah' (wet ricefields) or 'ladang' (dry rice), and Toba Batak, most expert in agriculture, would have migrated to meet demand in new areas. The increasing importance of rice had religious significance, increasing the power of the Batak high priests, who had responsibility for ensuring agricultural success.

Typical Batak Greeting

Each tribe has Batak greeting each signature. Although the Batak tribe famous for greeting Horasnya, but there are still two more that are less popular greeting in the community that is Mejuah juah and Njuah juah. Horas itself still has a reference to each tribe based on the use

1. Pakpak "Njuah-Mo juah Banta Karina!"

2. Karo "Mejuah-juah We Krina!"

3. Toba "Jala Gabe Horas Ma On Hita Saluhutna!"

4. Simalungun "Horas Haganupan Banta, Salam Habonaran Do Bona!"

5. Mandailing and Angkola "Horas Tondi Tondi Matogu Ma Madingin Pears, Vegetables Matua Bulung!"

Kinship

Kinship is related to the legal relationships between people in social life. There are two forms of kinship for the Batak tribe, which is based on lineage (genealogy) and based on the sociological, while there is no territorial kinship.

Forms of kinship based on descent (genealogy) visible from clan genealogies from Si Raja Batak, where all ethnic groups have Batak clan. While kinship is based on sociological occur through agreements (inter-clan match only) or by marriage. In the tradition of Batak, the unity of Adat is blood ties in clans, and Marga. This means for example Harahap, unity is customary Marga Marga Harahap vs. another. Given that the Batak Adat / Traditional Batak dynamic nature that often adjusted to the time and place affect the hue differences between regions tradition.

The existence of philosophy in the parable of the Toba Batak language, which reads: Jonok dongan partubu jonokan do dongan parhundul. is a philosophy that we should always maintain good relations with neighbors, because they're the closest friend. But in a custom implementation, the first look for is the one clan, although basically neighbors should not be forgotten in the implementation of the Indigenous.


                                                     A traditional Toba Batak house
                                                    Batak warriors, 1870.
Judgement Place of Toba Batak
kinds of traditional Batak clothing





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