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Ulos from North Sumatera Indonesia.

Tuesday, August 9, 2011

Ulos, or often called ulos cloth is one of the typical Indonesian fashion. Ulos hereditary developed by the Batak people, Sumatra. From his native language, meaning ulos cloth. How to make a similar ulos by making the typical Palembang songket, ie using the loom instead of machines.

Ulos is the dominant color in red, black, and white decorated by various woven from threads of gold or silver. Ulos originally imposed in the form of a scarf or gloves alone, often used on official or ceremonial event Batak, but now often found in the form of souvenir products, pillowcases, belts, bags, clothing, tablecloths, ties, purses, and curtains .
tablecloths, ties, pursesand curtains 


Ulos also sometimes given to the mother who was pregnant in order to facilitate the birth of the baby into the world and to protect the mother from any danger that threatens the process of childbirth.

Most ulos extinct because it is not produced anymore, like Ulos King, Ulos Yeast Botik, Ulos sombre, Ulos Saput (ulos used as wrapping the corpse), and Ulos Sibolang.


Author: Asep A SuprayogiGreat curiosity arise in Writers of the Batak
culture and development of the Batak culture arises when the writer gets a gift from a friend Writers ulos. Feel special not because of the price of these ulos cloth, but because the fabric of tradition typical of Batak culture is actually given by someone who was not even a Batak culture and even new to Indonesia as part of reclamation program Nias.With limited Indonesian language, my friend is trying to explore the cultural values ​​of Indonesia. The process of acculturation was doing incredible leaps and bounds. Amazing also, he can enjoy the cultural differences that exist. Swedish culture and Indonesia certainly a lot of difference. Appreciation and respect for the 'natives' and the curiosity his admirable blend. Not like most of us DGT employees who never understood the meaning of "where the earth dipijak there upheld the sky."One embarrassing thing is that I just understand the implied meaning of the provision ulos after so long. I was too late to learn the meaning of friendship, "tu ra ari so biltak, tu ra AEK so shook." Amazing. It turns out that just walk on this ground already membaerikan me a lot of wealth: knowledge and friends.Moving on from my respect of the Batak culture, on this occasion I will share writing about ulos. Hopefully narrow chauvinism of the origins and our own culture and contempt for other cultures do not happen to us.Oloan Pardede [Procedure Types and Uses]In the old days before people knew Batak textiles made out, ulos are everyday wear. When men wear top called "Hande, Hande" while the bottom is called "singkot" then the head covering called a "ropes" or "sizzle".Bia used women, the lower chest to the limit of so-called "haen", to cover my back is called "Hoba-Hoba" and when used a scarf called a "ampe-ampe" and used as a head covering called a "saong".When a woman holding a child, back cover is called "hohop-hohop" is a tool for holding so-called "parompa".Until now the tradition still dressed this way we can see the interior area Tapanuli.Not all Batak ulos can be used in everyday life. For example ulos jugia, live yeast, yeast Hotang and runjat. Usually it is stored and used only at certain times.MAKING PROCESS BATAK ulos.For the layman feels very unique. Ulos basic material in general is the same kind of yarn that is woven from cotton. What distinguishes a ulos is the process of manufacture. It is a measure of determining the value of a ulos.To give a basic color in a similar ulos indigo plant (salaon) is inserted into a pot of land that has been filled with water. These herbs are soaked (digon-gon) days until gatahnya out, then squeezed and the waste is disposed. The result is a black colored liquid bluish-called "itom".Pot soil (palabuan) initially filled with rain water being stored in the curve of the stone (AEK ni nanturge) mixed with lime water to taste. Then the liquid is colored bluish black was incorporated, and stir until dissolved. It's called "manggaru". This yarn is dipped into the liquid. Before dyed, yarn entwined with the advance of other threads on the portion-specific portion according to the desired color, then dyeing process starts over and over again. This process takes a very long time and even months and there is nothing to defeat many.After the expected color is reached, the thread was then plated with water sludge ashes mixed with water, then cooked to boiling until the yarn looks shiny. This is called "mar-sigira". Usually done in the morning on the edge once or dipinggiran river / lake.When color is expected to be mature enough, winding yarn and then opened to "diunggas" in order to become strong threads. Soaked yarn into the pot containing the rice to soak the whole thread. Diunggas finished, dried yarn.The yarn was dry rolled (dihulhul) every kind of color.Once the thread is complete in the volume of each type of color required further work is "mangani". The finished yarn is then entered Diani weaving process.Batak ulos If we look closely, it would seem that a relatively primitive way of making a very high artistic merit.As stated above, Batak ulos have the same raw materials. The difference is the poses have a certain level of manufacture. For example for a virgin, who is learning to weave is only allowed to make this parompa ulos called "mallage" (ulos used for carrying children).This level is measured by the number of sticks used to color the animal lays the desired motive. High levels is when he has been able to use the seven fruit sticks called "marsipitu lily". Concerned have been considered quite capable of weaving all kinds of Batak ulos.TYPE ulos1. Jugia ulos.Ulos is also called the "naso ulos pipot ra 'or' pinunsaan". Ulos usually very expensive price and value in the Batak tribe called ulos "homitan" stored in "hombung" or "parmonang-monangan" (a Iemari in earlier times when). According to the beliefs of the Batak ulos indiscriminate use is not allowed except for those that have been "saur Matua" or another word "buckler gabe" (parents who already have grandchildren of her male and female).As long as there are still children who have not married or do not have descendants despite having sebahagian grandson of his son, the parents may not be called or classified with tingkalan saur Matua. Only someone who is called "na gabe" alone is entitled to use such ulos. So the size of the indigenous tribe of Batak hagabeon is not viewed from the position of rank or wealth.The high usage rules of this type cause ulos ulos is a rare thing to many people who do not know him. Ulos often the most visible legacy of parents to their children and nialainya equals "sitoppi" (gold worn by the king's wife at a party) whose size is equal to the size of rice as agreed, and certainly a large amount.2. Ulos Living Yeast.Ulos below this level Ulos Jugia. Many people assume ulos this is the high value the most, considering this ulos wearer socialized in traditional Batak ceremony.Ulos can be used for various purposes at a ceremony of mourning and the ceremonies of joy. And can also be worn by kings and by the mid society. In ancient times used also for "Tondi mangupa" (confirmed the spirit) of a newborn child. Ulos is also used by the habolonan suhut (host). This is what distinguishes it from other suhut, which in the version of "Na Tolu Dalihan" called dongan tubu.In the Batak kinship system. Groups of one clan (dongan taboo) is a "group-body exercise sisada sisada Somba" against other clan groups. There is a saying "do suhul martanda, marbona sakkalan, marnata do suhut, marnampunu do ugasan", which can be interpreted even if the party for the common interest, have the right intention (suhut sihabolonan) is still recognized as decision said end (final decision).By using this ulos (for other guests) will be apparent who the real host.Making ulos is different from making other ulos, ulos because this may be done by mutual cooperation. In other words, done separately by different people. Both left and right sides ulos (ambi) done by two people. Ulos head up and down (tinorpa) done by two people as well, while the middle or body ulos (Tor) is done one person. So wholly executed five people. Then the work to five people are brought together (diihot) into a single unit called ulos "Yeast Life".Why should work that way? Ulos doing this should be completed within a certain time according to "hatiha" Batak (Batak calendar). When starting Arita (first day) is completed in Tula (middle twenty days).When a Parent dies, taking ulos this is the elder brother while others wear ulos "sibolang". Ulos is also very good when given as ulos "Panggabei" (Ulos Saur Matua) to the grandson of the deceased child. At that value the same as the Living Yeast ulos jugia ulos.At the wedding ceremony, ulos is usually given as ulos "Pansamot" (for the parents of the groom) and ulos can not be given to the bride by anyone. And area Simalungun ulos Yeast Life should not be worn by women.3. Yeast Hotang.Ulos is usually given to a bride and groom called ulos HeLa (hela = law). By granting this ulos intended to bond such as rattan (Hotang).Way of gift to the bride and groom is draped from the right side of the bride, the tip is held with right hand Iaki male and female ends left by the middle of the chest and then put together like a bound.In antiquity rattan rope is an object that is considered the most powerful and potent. This is symbolized by the yeast (pattern) is.4. Sadum ulos.Ulos is full of bright colors to very suitable for the atmosphere of joy. In South Tapanuli ulos is usually used as panjangki / parompa (sling) for the descendants of King or Mangaraja Daulat. To invite (marontang) king of kings, was used as a base ulos betel on a large plate (dish Godang burangir / harunduk panyurduan).Ulos usage rules are so tight that there are certain groups in South Tapanuli prohibited memakui this ulos. This is so beautiful ulos so often used in other areas as ulos mementos and even made as well as wall hangings. Ulos is often given as a recalled memory of his official visit to local officials.5. Runjat ulos.Ulos is usually used by wealthy people or people regarded as ulos "edang-edang" (used at the time of going to the invitation). Ulos can also be given to the bride by a close family according to the version (tohonan) Dalihan Natolu well outside experts (outside hasuhutan Bolon), for example by Bones (uncle), pariban (brother of the bride who is married), and pamarai (uncle of the bride ). Ulos can also be given at time of hire, wages in the event shindig (ulaon Silas ni Roha).The fifth type is a ulos ulos homitan (deposits) are only visible at certain times. Because this is rarely used to ulos not need to be washed and dried normally enough during the day when the full moon (Tula).6. Sibolang ulos.Ulos can be used for the purposes of grief or joy. For the purpose of grief is usually selected from a type of black color stand out, is when the show joy selected from prominent white color. In the event ulos grief is the most widely used of people. To ulos saput or ulos tujung of type ulos should and should not be of another kind.In this ulos wedding ceremony is usually used as a "cap ni Ampang" and can also be worn, but the chosen of the type whose color white stands out. This is called "ulos pamontari". Because ulos can be used for any event custom then this ulos rated highest in terms of adat Batak. The price is relatively cheap so it can reach the average person. It's just not lajim ulos used as ulos pangupa or parompa.7. Ulos-suri Suri Ganjang.Usually called just ulos-suri Suri, since s type comb-shaped elongated. Formerly this ulos diperguakan as ampe-ampe/hande-hande. At the time margondang (drum beat) is used ulos hula boru children welcome party. Ulos can also be given as "ulos Tondi" to the bride. Ulos is often also used women as sabe-sabe. There ulos this privilege is because the length exceeds the usual ulos. When used as ampe-ampe can reach twice the convolution on the left and right shoulder that looks like wearing two ulos sipemakai.8. Mangiring ulos.Ulos has a style that coincided with each other procession. It symbolizes fertility and agreements. Ulos parents are often given as ulos parompa to her grandson. Along with giving ulos it would later born children, then born as well as his younger siblings in line and consistent. Ulos can also be worn as everyday clothing in the form of ropes (sizzle) for men. For women can also be used as saong (hood). At the time of the ceremony "mampe Goar" (the baptism of a child) ulos can also be worn as a headdress, headdress, given the hula-hula to the law. When mampe Goar for his eldest son should ulos type of "Star maratur".9. Maratur star.Ulos illustrates lined a regular star. Lined a regular star in this show ulos-abiding people, harmonious accord and one word in family ties. Also in terms of "sinadongan" (wealth) or hasangapon (glory) there is nothing lame, all within the average levels of the same. In everyday life can be used as-Hande Hande (ampe-ampe), can also be used as ropes or saong. While the values ​​and functions the same as ulos Mangiring and the price is relatively the same.10. Sitoluntuho-Bolean.Ulos is usually only used as a headband or scarf women. Has no meaning unless it is customary given to a newborn child as parompa ulos. Ulos types can be used as an additional, in terms of traditional Batak ulos panoropi said to be given to the boru hula already counted distant relatives. Called Sitoluntuho because raginya / coraknya lined up three, is "tuho" or "single" which is usually used to make a hollow land for planting seeds.11. Uos tipping.Ulos this type ulos "nanidondang" or ulos paruda (gems). Purada or gems are trimmer than those ulos. Ulos formerly was used by the girls and families Kings for Hoba-Hoba used to chest. Also used at receiving guests or during mating enlarger.At the time of yore purada or jewels were brought by merchants from India via Bandar Barus. In the mid-twentieth century, the jewel is no longer traded. Then the form of yeast ulos gems are replaced by "manjungkit" (mengkait) ulos these threads. Yeast obtained almost similar to the artificial songket Rejang or Lebong. Because the manufacturing process is very difficult, cause this is a rare commodity ulos, then his position is replaced by songket. This is why both the Raja Batak ancestral area was at a wedding is usually used songket the girl / bride instead nanidondang ulos. Here is a sign or a proof has been fading for the Batak ulos value.12. Lobu ulos-Lobu.Ulos types are usually ordered directly by the people who need it, because this ulos have very special needs, especially people who are often plagued by misfortune (child mortality). Therefore never be traded or stored diparmonang-monangan, which is why people rarely know this ulos. Shaped like a sarong and rambunya should not be cut. Ulos is also called ulos "giun hinarharan". Antiquity parents often give to his son ulos who are pregnant (pregnant). The goal is that eventually the children were born safely.There are many other kinds of shades and names ulos, among others: Panai Yeast, Yeast Hatirangga, Ambasang Yeast, Yeast Sidos-dos, Sampuborna Yeast, Yeast Siattar, Sapot Yeast, Yeast ni.Hirik the imput, Ulos Bugis, Ulos Padang Deer, Ulos Simata, Ulos Happu, Ulos Tukku, Ulos Gipul, Ulos Takkup, and many more names that have not been mentioned here ulos. According to old people kind ulos reach 57 species.As already explained, ulos have a very high value in traditional ceremonies hobo, because it's unlikely we're talking about without talking about the traditional hobo hiou, Francois, obit UIS Godang or all of which is a identintas Batak people.ACCEPTANCE ulosAccording to the customs procedures hobo, everyone will receive a minimum of 3 kinds ulos from birth until his death. This is called ulos "na marsintuhu" (ulos necessity) in accordance with the philosophy of dalihan na tolu. First received when he was a newborn called ulos "parompa" formerly known as paralo ulos-alo Tondi. The second is received at the time he entered ambang new life (marriage) was given in a ulos "hela", formerly called, ulos "marjabu" for the bride and groom.So the third is ulos received when he died. world called ulos "saput".I. Ulos At Birth.There are two things to note. The first is whether the child was born the eldest son or not. And secondly whether the child is the eldest son of an eldest son of one family. 1. When born it is the eldest child of a father who was not a firstborn then mampe Goar sianak addition, only his parents only (mar Amani ....). 2. Was when the child is the eldest son of an eldest son in a family so that in addition sianak mampe Goar, also his father and grandfather (and Ompu marama ni ... ni ...).It should be noted on the title Ompu ... if the title has the word insert "the", which earned it the title of the eldest female diperdapat (ompung bao).Where-did not get a word ... then inserts the title Ompu it receives from the firstborn males (Ompung Suhut).For the first point, then the hula-hula only provide two ulos namely ulos parompa to sianak and ulos pargomgom mampe Goar for his father. To sianak as parompa ulos Mangiring and can be given to her father may be given ulos-suri suri ganjang or sitoluntuho ulos.For the second point, hula-hula ulos must provide three pieces, namely to sianak parompa ulos, ulos pargomgom to his father, and ulos-headdress headdress for ompungnya.Along with giving ulos always delivered the words that contain the hope that presumably the child's name in bold and large after dianya later able to obtain the blessings of Almighty God, and this right is conveyed through the instance (rhyme) and in line with the hula-hula that provide ulos of type ulos maratur star, but if only if it merely gives ulos parompa ulos Mangiring okay.II. Ulos When MarriageWithin the marriage ceremony, the hula-hula should be able to provide ulos "the tot ni pansa" namely: 1. Ulos marjabu (bride), 2. Ulos pansamot / pargomgom to the parents of the bridegroom, 3. Ulos pamarai given to the older brother of the groom's father or siblings, 4. Ulos simolohon given to iboto (adek / sister) of the bridegroom. If no one has been married then this can be provided to ulos iboto from his father. Ulos called in accordance with the provisions of the above is ulos that must be provided by the hula-hula (the parents of the bride).The lid ulos ni boru diampuan Ampang accepted by the marriage only if carried in place of the family of women (dialap sell). If the marriage is performed in place a family man (ditaruhon sell) ulos ni Ampang cap is not provided.Often we see so many ulos given to the bride by a close family. Ulos first is called "yeast-yeast ni sinamot." Usually that gets yeast ni sinamot (receiving party of sinamot) gave ulos in return. In example (rhyme) in the Batak tribe called the "malo manapol ingkon mananggal". This verse implies, the Batak people would not owed customs.But with the signs pinudun term that was originally intended to shorten the time, resulting in blurring of who the recipient of the KING OF POP KING OF POP-yeast-yeast ni sinamot. Position should not arise (margoli-KING OF POP) so that appropriate public invitation replaced (ale-ale). On the pretext of the term "ulos holong" give to the bride as well ulos.The procedure to grant.A ulos (usually yeast Hotang) are provided for the bride by the hula-hula. Parents of the bride immediately gives (manguloshon) to the bride and groom are called "ulos marjabu". If the woman's parents represented by the immediate family, then he is entitled to give to the bride ulos, but if the parents of men who represented, then it must be accepted ulos passamot folded.While ulos pargomgom (for pangamai) is acceptable according to the usual manner, and in this event should be provided as many as two strands ulos (ulos pasamot and ulos pargomgom). In the delivery of ulos usually accompanied by a variety of rhymes (umpasa) and a variety of words that contain the blessing (cheekbone). After diulosi continued delivery of rice cheekbone (Boras warden ni Tondi) sown to the public including by saying "long live" thrice.Furthermore, following the granting ulos to the parents of the groom or his representative in this regard in line with the delivery umpasa and words of advice. After that walk the provision ulos ni tot pansa to pamarai and simolohon. Usually the provision is delivered by suhut paidua (family / relatives derivative grandmother).After another ulos running then as the cover is a gift from bone ulos (uncle) of the bridegroom.The procedure for granting ulos sequence is as follows: 1. At first that gives ulos are parents of the bride, 2. Followed by the new bone including bone rorobot bride, 3. Then followed the dongan Sabutuha of the bride's parents called paidua (pamarai), 4. Followed by the pariban ie Boru from parents of the bride, 5. And the last is bone of the bridegroom, after he was given a portion of the received sinamot parboru of paranak of the amount agreed upon as much as 2 / 3 of the parboru and 1 / 3 of paranak. A portion is delivered by the parents of the bride to the bone / uncle of the groom, this is called "tintin marangkup".III. Ulos When Death.Ulos the third and the last one given to a person is ulos received at the time he died. Level (age memurut status and derivatives) determines the type of person that can be received ulos.If someone dies young (hadirianna mate) then receives ulos, ulos is called "parolang-olangan" usually of the type parompa. When seseorng died after a family (matipul ulu, marompas tataring) then was given to him ulos "saput" and the left (widowers, widows) are given ulos "tujung".When the dead parents who are complete in terms of heredity and circumstances (juice / saur Matua) then is given ulos "Panggabei".Ulos "jugia" can only be given to the offspring of parents who no one has died (martilaha Martua).Ulos special about tujung saput and it must be stressed about the gift. According to the parents, who gave saput is the "bones", as evidence that the bone still has something to do with the niece (berenya). Ulos tujung being given hula-hula, and it is important to not again repeat the wrong gift.PROCEDURE administration.If the deceased child (not married) then there is no ceremony saput. If the deceased was a married, after the hula heard about this khabar, disediakanlah a ulos to tujung and the bones provide saput ulos. Gift accompanied by the words of condolence (marhabot ni Roha). After a few days ago, continued with the opening (reveal) tujung performed the hula-hula. After the bodies were buried, at that time there also reveal tujung implemented, depending on the agreement of both parties.Hula-hula to provide rice dipiring (warden ni Tondi), clean water to wash my face (AEK parsuapan), one glass of plain water (AEK sitio-tio). Implementation of the event reveals tujung generally made in the morning (panangkok eye ni ni ari). After the hula-hula tujung opening of the balu, followed by washing her face (marsuap). Children who are left also washed his face, then continued with the sowing of rice on the head that widow and her children.GIVE PANGGABEI ulos.When one parent who sari / saur Matua dies, the whole hula will give ulos called ulos Panggabei. Ulos Usually this is no longer given to the deceased but to all its derivatives (children, pahompu, and great-grandchildren). Usually this ulos amount in the order ranging from hula-hula hula-hula, bone bona, bona ni ari, and the hula-hula hula-hula son and grandchildren / great-grandson.The event of death for old people like this usually takes a very long time, sometimes reaching 3-5 day show. The cost of the show is quite large, because this is the top event of the latter's life.In the Toba, Karo Simalungun and in principle the hula-hulalah which gives ulos to parboru / Boru (in marriage). But the region Pakpak / Dairi and South Tapanuli, borulah parties who provide ulos to kula-kula (fro traps) or mora. Specific differences does not mean reducing the value and meaning ulos in traditional ceremonies.All operations dititik beratkan Batak customary in accordance with the "dalihan na tolu" (stove / kitchen consists of three stones) that understanding in traditional Batak is dongan tubu, boru, hula-hula must help each other and mutual respect.In the Toba area are eligible to ulos is:1. Hula-hula party (bone, in-law, bona bone, bona ni ari, and bone rorobot).2. Parties dongan tubu (father, brother's father, grandfather, brother of the bridegroom are higher in family status).3. Pariban parties (in order of height on kinship).Ale-ale (friends relatives) that we often see poised to give the ulos, is actually outside tohonan Dalihan na tolu (granting ale-ale is not specified should ulos, sometimes given as gifts and others).

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